Case study theory
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Case study theory
Case Study Research and the Grounded Theory Approach
Gary Thomas thus proposes a typology for the case study wherein purposes are first identified evaluative or exploratory , then approaches are delineated theory-testing, theory-building or illustrative , then processes are decided upon, with a principal choice being between whether the study is to be single or multiple, and choices also about whether the study is to be retrospective, snapshot or diachronic, and whether it is nested, parallel or sequential. Theorizing in sociology and social science: turning to the context of discovery. Unfortunately, such diverging objectives are often neglected in case study research. Freud, S. In case study research, the extended case study method is used for this case study research design Ridder The case study will involve a real life situation that a driver could face whilst driving and aims to assess your understanding of road safety issues and not simply your knowledge of it. Shah, S. Although qualitative data are preferred in all of the designs, quantitative data are seen as a possible opportunity to strengthen cases by such data. In the social sciences and life sciences , a case study is a research method involving an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a subject of study the case , as well as its related contextual conditions. At Harvard Law School In , Christopher Langdell departed from the traditional lecture-and-notes approach to teaching contract law and began using cases pled before courts as the basis for class discussions. A multiple case study may serve a replication logic by which the findings have relevance beyond the cases under investigation. In their view, a first step of theory building is a careful description of the phenomena. Based on this portfolio, theoretical contributions of case study designs can be better evaluated in terms of understanding, theory-building, theory development, and theory testing. In single case study research, the opportunity to open a black box arises by looking at deeper causes of the phenomenon Fiss Eisenhardt, on the contrary, claims that multiple cases allow replication between cases and is, therefore, seen as a means of corroboration of propositions Eisenhardt Classical case studies prefer deep descriptions of a single case, considering the context to reveal insights into the single case and by that elaborate new theories. This approach offers a more fine-grained understanding that sheds light on the diversity of case study research designs in terms of their differential theory contributions. The case data can lead to the identification of patterns and relationships, creating, extending, or testing a theory Gomm et al. The world is a product of socially and historically related interchanges amongst people social construction. I follow especially the argument by Piekkari et al. A popular template for building theory from case studies is a paper by Eisenhardt Toggle navigation. Building Theories from Case. Study Research. KATHLEEN M. EISENHARDT. Stanford University. This paper describes the process of inducting theory using.
Case study theory - DVSA Theory Test Case Studies
It is assumed that a number of cases will increase the understanding and support theorizing by comparison of the cases. Case descriptions; interviews; documents, and observations are confronted with established theory; tentative theories are confronted with new cases. Comparative case studies, in social science, policy, and education research; discusses one approach, which encourages researchers to compare horizontally, vertically, and temporally. New York: Springer. Trends in theory building and theory testing: a five-decade study of the Academy of Management Journal. Prior knowledge and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. Organizational research methods series. Data are collected mainly by interviews, documents, and observations. It is argued that the complexity of the reality is not adequately captured Suddaby et al. How to reference this article: How to reference this article: McLeod, S. Pattern-matching as a primary choice; Analytic generalization.
Case Study Method
Theory elaboration: The heuristics of case analysis. The underlying logic is validation by replication. The theoretical sampling strategy in this case study research design stems from the theoretical failure in confrontation with the site. In this discussion, case study research designs have been discussed as a homogeneous set that mostly contributes to theory-building in an exploratory manner. This paper provides a portfolio of case study research designs that enables researchers and reviewers to evaluate whether the case study arsenal has been adequately located:. Confusing these potential contributions by inconsistently utilizing the appropriate methods weakens the contribution of case studies to scientific progress and, by that, damages the reputation of case studies. Views Read Edit View history. Learning from the case; Categorical aggregation. Kok, and W. Flyvbjerg, B. Because of their in-depth, multi-sided approach case studies often shed light on aspects of human thinking and behavior that would be unethical or impractical to study in other ways. An introduction to qualitative research , 4th ed. Several possibilities exist to test the initial findings of multiple case studies using different lenses from inside and outside the management realm Corley and Gioia ; LePine and Wilcox-King ; Okhuysen and Bonardi ; Zahra and Newey , but have not become a standard in case study research. The primary task of an intrinsic case study is to understand the case. The Accounting Review. Cases are sampled if they provide an unusual phenomenon, replicate findings from other cases, use contrary replication, and eliminate alternative explanations. Yin 's guidelines and making positivist assumptions. The building of a theory concludes in an understanding of the dynamics underlying the relationship; the primary theoretical reasons for why the relationships exist Huy Case study research can mean single and multiple case studies, can include quantitative evidence, relies on multiple sources of evidence, and benefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions. These developments do not seem to be seriously considered by most authors, as differences and elaborations of this spectrum are rarely found in publications. Linking dynamic-capability portfolios and innovation outcomes. Stake, R. In theoretical refinement, a modification of existing theoretical perspectives is conducted Edmondson and McManus The categorization scheme enables the researchers to predict what they will observe. Triandis, 39—
The theory contribution of case study research designs | SpringerLink
As a result, highly sophisticated statistical tools enable falsification of the theory. Burawoy goes a step further. Burns, R. The challenges of CSR include: decision on the research purpose exploratory vs. ENW EndNote. Further Information. Google Scholar. In case study research, the extended case study method is used for this case study research design Ridder They specifically exhibit the role of philosophical assumptions, establishing differences in conventionally accepted practices of case study research in published papers. In order to fulfill this need, the organization must gather pertient information. Five misunderstandings about case-study research. New constructs and relationships are revealed out of case descriptions; interviews; documents, and observations. At Harvard Law School In , Christopher Langdell departed from the traditional lecture-and-notes approach to teaching contract law and began using cases pled before courts as the basis for class discussions. LePine, J. The Qualitative Report — Freud a, b conducted very detailed investigations into the private lives of his patients in an attempt to both understand and help them overcome their illnesses. Another suggestion is that case study should be defined as a research strategy , an empirical inquiry that investigates a phenomenon within its real-life context. Because of their in-depth, multi-sided approach case studies often shed light on aspects of human thinking and behavior that would be unethical or impractical to study in other ways. Typical for case study research is non-random sampling; there is no sample that represents a larger population. For driving schools and instructors. theory test case study case study driving theory test practice mock theory test case study questions driving theory test case study questions and. Abstract: The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research.
Frederic Le Play first introduced the case-study method into social science in as a handmaiden to statistics in his studies of family budgets. A case study requires an integrated, holistic comprehension of the case complexity. Academy of Management Review 6— There is an extensive range between the different designs regarding the research processes. Case studies are often designed as multiple case studies with cross-sectional designs based on interviews. Theorising from case studies: towards a pluralist future for international business research. Case studies should not be confused with qualitative research and they can be based on any mix of quantitative and qualitative evidence. I follow especially the argument by Piekkari et al. Edmondson, A. The research may also continue for an extended period of time, so processes and developments can be studied as they happen. Edmondson and McManus state the starting phase of a theory as nascent theory providing answers to new questions revealing new connections among phenomena. Constructing mystery: Empirical matters in theory development. In sum, theories are a systematic combination of components and their relationships within boundaries. There are different rationales for choosing a single case design Yin : Stake, R. Animal testing Archival research Behavior epigenetics Case study Content analysis Experiments Human subject research Interviews Neuroimaging Observation Psychophysics Qualitative research Quantitative research Self-report inventory Statistical surveys. They can help us generate new ideas that might be tested by other methods. In similar vein, Gilbert and Christensen demonstrate the process character of theory. Building theory about theory building: what constitutes a theoretical contribution? Journal of Management Studies — Additional relevant documentation, such as financial statements, time-lines, and short biographies, often referred to in the case study as exhibits, and multimedia supplements such as video-recordings of interviews with the case subject often accompany the case studies. Iterating between data collection and analysis, Danneels revealed resource cognition as an element not considered so far in dynamic capability theory.
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